WRITING 1 (mechanics)

 

MECHANICS

  1. PUNCTUATION

 

bjbb

                                EXAMPLE  1: à The price of gold is currently very high.

 à Dr. Swisher is a professor in the school of   education.

 

                        EXAMPLE  2: à Have you ever been to Buenos Aries?

                                                 à How are you ?

 

                        EXAMPLE 3 :à I don’t believe you!

                                                àWhat a beautiful day!

 

Note : Exclamation marks are not used frequently in academic writing.

Summary of Punctuation Marks

Click on the link for each punctuation mark to find out more.

Punctuation Mark

Name

Example

 (.)

full stop or period

I like English.

 (,)

comma

I speak English, French and Thai.

 (;)

semi-colon

I don’t often go swimming; I prefer to play tennis.

 (:)

colon

You have two choices: finish the work today or lose the contract.

 (-)

hyphen

This is a rather out-of-date book.

 (_)

dash

In each town—London, Paris and Rome—we stayed in youth hostels.

 (?)

question mark

Where is Shangri-La?

 (!)

exclamation mark
exclamation point (AmE)

“Help!” she cried. “I’m drowning!”

 (/)

slash, forward slash or oblique

Please press your browser’s Refresh/Reload button.

 (\)

backslash

C:\Users\Files\jse.doc

 (“…”)

double quotation marks

“I love you,” she said.

 (‘…’)

single quotation marks

‘I love you,’ she said.

 (‘)

apostrophe

This is John’s car.

(___)

underline

Have you read War and Peace?

(_)

underscore

bin_lad@cia.gov

(….)

round brackets

I went to Bangkok (my favourite city) and stayed there for two weeks.

[…]

square brackets

The newspaper reported that the hostages [most of them French] had been released.

…..

ellipsis mark

One happy customer wrote: “This is the best program…that I have ever seen.”

 

Exercise of punctuation :

            The play may begin at the moment i said It may have begin already susan answered i hurried to the ticket-office may I have two tickets please asked I’m sorry we have soul out the girl said what a pity Susan exclaimed just than a man hurried to the ticket-office can i return these two tickets the asked certainly the girl said i went back to the ticket-office at once could i have those two tickets please asked certenly the girl said but they are for next Wednesdays performance do you still want them

I might as well have them i said sadly

Key answer of punctuation :

“The play may begin at the moment, “I said. “It may have begin already,” Susan answered. I hurried to the ticket-office. “May I have two tickets please! Asked. “I’m sorry, we have soul out,”  the girl said. “What a pity!” Susan exclaimed. Just than, a man hurried to the ticket-office. “Can i return these two tickets The asked. “Certainly, “the girl said. I went back to the ticket-office at once. “Could I have those two tickets please?” asked. “Certenly,” the girl said, “but they are for next Wednesday’s performance. Do you still want them.

“I might as well have them, “ I said sadly.

 

  1. B.     CAPITALIZATION

The are two kinds of letters in the English alphabet. Capital are usually larger and sometimes have a different shape than small letters.

There are several important rules for using capital letters. You must capitalize :

 

Important Rules

 

Example

1. The first word of sentence

1. A good diet is important for good health

2. The pronoun

2. I am always tired when I get home from classes

3.Names of people

3. Carlos Perez , Susan Martin

4.Tittle that appear with names

4. Doctor – Dr. , Mister – Mr.

5.Names of cities

5. New York, Cairo, Tokyo

6.Names of states and countries

6. Peru, Portugal, Indonesia

7.Names of continents, oceans, lakes,   rivers, deserts, mountains, and important geographic divisions.

7. Lake Luzerne, the Far East, the Pacific Ocean

8. Names of institution and organization

8. the United Nations, the English Language Institute

9. Names of specific buildings

9. the White House, Baxter Library

10. Names of Street

10. Forbes Avenue, Sixth Street

11. Brand names

11. Westinghouse, Kodak

12. Names of languages and nationalities

12. Japanese, Spanish, Arabic

13. Days of the week and their abbreviations

13. Monday, Sunday, etc

14. Months of the year and their abbreviation

14. January, February, etc

15. Holidays

15. Ramadan, Chirstmas,

16. Tittle of books/ songs

16. Winds of War, Take It Easy

 

Exercise 1

For each of the followig sentences, cross out letters that should be capitalize, and write the capital letter in the space above.

  1. my boss said, “we need a longer lunch break. a half hour is not enough time.”
  2. i wrote a letter about health care to senator Robb, and i sent a copy to vi rus, my doctor.
  3. kate wants to take a class with professor ted jones who has great teaching skills.
  4. in her book, jan wrote, “meeting friends is hard for some people”.
  5. dr. seuss’s book, the cat in the hat, is a big hit with children.
  6. susan said, “we get more conservative as we age”
  7. markbeauchamp, our mayor, has done great things for his town.
  8. the song “ let’s give them something to talk about” reminds me of you.
  9. some people want president bush to fight terrorism more aggressively.
  10. ellen’s music box plays “ring around the rosie”.

 

Key answers:

  1. My boss said, “We need a longer lunch break. A half hour is not enough time.”
  2. I wrote a letter about health care to Senator Robb, and I sent a copy to ViRus, my doctor.
  3. Kate wants to take a class with Professor Ted Jones who has great teaching skills.
  4. In her book, Jan wrote, “Meeting Friends is Hard for Some People”.
  5. dr. Seuss’s book, The Cat in the Hat, is a big hit with children.
  6. Susan said, “We get more conservative as we age”.
  7. Mark Beauchamp, our mayor, has done great things for his town.
  8. The song “ Let’sGive Them Something to Talk About” reminds me of you.
  9. Some people want President Bush to fight terrorism more aggressively.
  10. Ellen’s music box plays “Ring Around the Rosie”.

 

Exercise 2

Cross out letters that should be capitalized, and write the capital letter in the spaces above.

  1. onmonday, hope church will open a new soup kitchen at park street and king street.
  2. blair high school held classes on veteran’s day, but the students were off for labor day.
  3. christian read the bible, and jews read the talmud.
  4. my mom came all the way from france to see me.
  5. the purple heart and the bronze star are meaningful awards.
  6. the renaissance was a time of great art and music.
  7. aunt sue and uncle peter are from the south, but they enjoyed traveling to vermont and new york.
  8. dad studied russian and spanish when he worked for the fbi.
  9. many lakes, such as champlain and squam lake, attract tourists in the summer.
  10. did you know that grandma liked nike’scommersials that aired during the super bowl.

Key answers:

  1. On Monday, Hope Church will open a new soup kitchen at park street and king street.
  2. Blair High School held classes on Veteran’s Day, but the students were off for Labor Day.
  3. Christian read the Bible, and Jews read the Talmud.
  4. My mom came all the way from France to see me.
  5. The Purple Heart and the Bronze Star are meaningful awards.
  6. The Renaissance was a time of great art and music.
  7. Aunt Sue and unclePeter are from the South, but they enjoyed traveling to Vermont and New York.
  8. Dad studied Russian and Spanish when he worked for the FBI.
  9. Many lakes, such as Champlain and Squamlake, attract tourists in the summer.
  10. Did you know that grandma liked Nike’s commersials that aired during the Super Bowl?

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. THE COMMA

 

Use a comma after each iten in a series including the item before the word and. However,when there are only two item joined by and, do not use a comma.

e.g : We had chicken and rice for dinner.

Exercise

1.  The waiter ignored the rude obnoxious customer.

2.  Joey ate all of his peas but he refused to eat his lima beans.

3.  Edgar Allan Poe the father of the short story is buried in Baltimore.

4.  Since the expansion of the Internet research has become much less tedious.

5.  To maintain excellent grades in your classes is an accomplishment.

6.  Handguns knives and other weapons are turning up in locker checks.

7.  The golfer wearing the plaid pants desperately needs to improve his game.

8.  As cucumbers grow their vines need room to expand.

9.  That movie in my opinion was too scary for children.

10.  You will come to my dance recital won’t you?

 

Key Answer

1.  The waiter ignored the rude, obnoxious customer. 

2.  Joey ate all of his peas, but he refused to eat his lima beans.

3.  Edgar Allan Poe, the father of the short story, is buried in Baltimore.

    

4. Since the expansion of the Internet, research has become much less tedious.     

5.  Correct.  To maintain excellent grades in your classes is an accomplishment.   

6.  Handguns,knives, and other weapons are turning up in locker checks.      

7.  Correct.  The golfer wearing the plaid pants desperately needs to improve his game.   

8.  As cucumbers grow,their vines need room to expand.    

9.  That movie,in my opinion, was too scary for children.      

10.  You will come to my dance recital, won’t you?

 

  1. CAPITALIZATION 2

More Capitalization Rules

Capitalize :

 

 

  1. 1.      The names of religions and important religious terms.

e.gà The Koran in the holy book of the Islamic region

  1. 2.      The names of important historical events and periods of time.

e.gà Word War II ended in 1945

  1. 3.      The names of specific college courses.

e.gà Won-Jo wants to take a Math course and a chemistry course next term.

  1. 4.      Terms associated with geographic names or personal names.

e.gà Have you ever seen a Shakespearean play?

  1. 5.      The words in the tittle of books, movies, magazines, etc( like on at in)(but, or)(a, an, the).

e.gàDavid Copperfield is the title of novel by Charles Dicken.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. THE APOSTROPHE

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Rule 1

Use the apostrophe with contractions. The apostrophe is always placed at the spot where the letter(s) has been removed.

Examples:
don’t, isn’t
You’re right.
She’s a great teacher.

Rule 2

Use the apostrophe to show possession. Place the apostrophe before the s to show singular possession.

Examples:
one boy’s hat
one woman’s hat
one actress’s hat
one child’s hat
Ms. Chang’s house

NOTE: Although names ending in s or an s sound are not required to have the second s added in possessive form, it is preferred.

Examples:
Mr. Jones’s golf clubs
Texas’s weather
Ms. Straus’s daughter
Jose Sanchez’s artwork
Dr. Hastings’s appointment (name is Hastings)
Mrs. Lees’s books (name is Lees)

Rule 3

Use the apostrophe where the noun that should follow is implied.

Example:
This was his father’s, not his, jacket.

 

 

Rule 4

To show plural possession, make the noun plural first. Then immediately use the apostrophe.

Examples:
two boys’ hats two women’s hats
two actresses’ hats
two children’s hats
the Changs’ house
the Joneses’ golf clubs
the Strauses’ daughter
the Sanchezes’ artwork
the Hastingses’ appointment
the Leeses’ books

Rule 5

Do not use an apostrophe for the plural of a name.

Examples:
We visited the Sanchezes in Los Angeles.
The Changs have two cats and a dog.

Rule 6

With a singular compound noun, show possession with ‘sat the end of the word.

Example:
my mother-in-law’s hat

Rule 7

If the compound noun is plural, form the plural first and then use the apostrophe.

Example:
my two brothers-in-law’s hats

Rule 8

Use the apostrophe and s after the second name only if two people possess the same item.

Examples:
Cesar and Maribel’s home is constructed of redwood.
Cesar’s and Maribel’s job contracts will be renewed next year.
Indicates separate ownership.
Cesar and Maribel’s job contracts will be renewed next year.
Indicates joint ownership of more than one contract.

Rule 9

Never use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns: his, hers, its, theirs, ours, yours, whose. They already show possession so they do not require an apostrophe.

Correct:
This book is hers, not yours.

Incorrect:
Sincerely your’s.

Rule 10

The only time an apostrophe is used for it’s is when it is a contraction for it is or it has.

Examples:
It’s a nice day.
It’s your right to refuse the invitation.
It’s been great getting to know you.

Rule 11

The plurals for capital letters and numbers used as nouns are not formed with apostrophes.

Examples:
She consulted with three M.D.s.
BUT
She went to three M.D.s’ offices.
The apostrophe is needed here to show plural possessive.
She learned her ABCs.
the 1990s not the 1990’s
the ’90s or the mid-’70s not the ’90’s or the mid-’70’s
She learned her times tables for 6s and 7s.

Exception:
Use apostrophes with capital letters and numbers when the meaning would be unclear otherwise.

Examples:
Please dot your i’s.
You don’t mean is.
Ted couldn’t distinguish between his 6’s and 0’s.
You need to use the apostrophe to indicate the plural of zero or it will look like the word Os. To be consistent within a sentence, you would also use the apostrophe to indicate the plural of 6’s.

Rule 12

Use the possessive case in front of a gerund (-ing word).

Examples:
Alex’s skating was a joy to behold.
This does not stop Joan’s inspecting of our facilities next Thursday.

Rule 13

If the gerund has a pronoun in front of it, use the possessive form of that pronoun.

Examples:
I appreciate your inviting me to dinner.I appreciated his working with me to resolve the conflict.

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE

1.  The girlfriend of her brother drives a trailer truck.

Her……………………girlfriend drives a trailer truck.

   

2.  We heard the voices of the children clearly in the lounge.

We heard the …………………….voices clearly in the lounge.

  

3.  The husbands of the sisters have lunch together every Monday.

The……………………husbands have lunch together every Monday.

  

4.  The report, supported by the accounts of two witnesses, proves he did not commit the crime.

The report, supported by two………………………..accounts, proves he did not commit the crime.

  

5.  The flavor of the bread was improved when he put butter on it.

The……………….flavor was improved when he put butter on it.

   

6.  The guess of anybody is as good as mine.

…………………………..guess is as good as mine.

  

7.  I spent all my Thanksgivings at the house belonging to my grandmother.

I spent all my Thanksgivings at my…………………………house.

  

8.  The votes of four members changed the outcome of the election.

Four…………………votes changed the outcome of the election.

  

9.  The wipers on your car need to be replaced.

Your……………………………..wipers need to be replaced.

 

10.The cat played with the toy belonging to it.

The cat played with…………………………………toy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANSWER

1.  The correct answer is brother’s.  Her brother’s girlfriend drives a trailer truck.  Refer to the apostrophe rule about singular possessive nouns for help.

2.  The correct answer is children’s.  We heard the children’s voices clearly in the lounge.  Refer to the apostrophe rule for irregular plural possessive nouns for help.

 3. The correct answer is sisters’.  The sisters’ husbands have lunch together every Monday Refer to the apostrophe rule for plural possessive nouns for help.

4.  The correct answer is witnesses’. The report, supported by two witnesses’ accounts, proves he did not commit the crime.   Refer to the apostrophe rule for plural possessive nouns for help.

5.  The correct answer is bread’s.  The bread’s flavor was improved when he put butter on it.  Refer to the apostrophe rule about singular possessive nouns for help.

6.  The correct answer is anybody’sAnybody’s guess is as good as mine.  Refer to the apostrophe rule for indefinite possessive pronouns for help.

7.  The correct answer is grandmother’s.  I spent all my Thanksgivings at my grandmother’s house.  Refer to the apostrophe rule about singular possessive nouns for help.

8.  The correct answer is members’.  Four members’ votes changed the outcome of the election.  Refer to the apostrophe rule for plural possessive nouns for help.

9.  The correct answer is car’s.  Your car’s wipers need to be replaced.  Refer to the apostrophe rule about singular possessive nouns for help.

10.The correct answer is its.  The cat played with its toy.  Refer to the apostrophe rule for the pronoun itfor help.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE :

Jane,Straus.May 18,1954-February 25,2011.Author,The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation

Margaret L. Benner.Director, Writing Support Program.English Department.Towson University. benner@towson.edu 

Hogan, Katherine S. 2004. Barron’s GED Writing Workbook. New York : Library of Congress.

http://www.towson.edu/ows/exercisecomma2.htm.

Alexander, G.L. New Concept English: Practice and Progress.

 

 

 

 

MECHANICS

  1. PUNCTUATION

 

bjbb

                                EXAMPLE  1: à The price of gold is currently very high.

 à Dr. Swisher is a professor in the school of   education.

 

                        EXAMPLE  2: à Have you ever been to Buenos Aries?

                                                 à How are you ?

 

                        EXAMPLE 3 :à I don’t believe you!

                                                àWhat a beautiful day!

 

Note : Exclamation marks are not used frequently in academic writing.

Summary of Punctuation Marks

Click on the link for each punctuation mark to find out more.

Punctuation Mark

Name

Example

 (.)

full stop or period

I like English.

 (,)

comma

I speak English, French and Thai.

 (;)

semi-colon

I don’t often go swimming; I prefer to play tennis.

 (:)

colon

You have two choices: finish the work today or lose the contract.

 (-)

hyphen

This is a rather out-of-date book.

 (_)

dash

In each town—London, Paris and Rome—we stayed in youth hostels.

 (?)

question mark

Where is Shangri-La?

 (!)

exclamation mark
exclamation point (AmE)

“Help!” she cried. “I’m drowning!”

 (/)

slash, forward slash or oblique

Please press your browser’s Refresh/Reload button.

 (\)

backslash

C:\Users\Files\jse.doc

 (“…”)

double quotation marks

“I love you,” she said.

 (‘…’)

single quotation marks

‘I love you,’ she said.

 (‘)

apostrophe

This is John’s car.

(___)

underline

Have you read War and Peace?

(_)

underscore

bin_lad@cia.gov

(….)

round brackets

I went to Bangkok (my favourite city) and stayed there for two weeks.

[…]

square brackets

The newspaper reported that the hostages [most of them French] had been released.

…..

ellipsis mark

One happy customer wrote: “This is the best program…that I have ever seen.”

 

Exercise of punctuation :

            The play may begin at the moment i said It may have begin already susan answered i hurried to the ticket-office may I have two tickets please asked I’m sorry we have soul out the girl said what a pity Susan exclaimed just than a man hurried to the ticket-office can i return these two tickets the asked certainly the girl said i went back to the ticket-office at once could i have those two tickets please asked certenly the girl said but they are for next Wednesdays performance do you still want them

I might as well have them i said sadly

Key answer of punctuation :

“The play may begin at the moment, “I said. “It may have begin already,” Susan answered. I hurried to the ticket-office. “May I have two tickets please! Asked. “I’m sorry, we have soul out,”  the girl said. “What a pity!” Susan exclaimed. Just than, a man hurried to the ticket-office. “Can i return these two tickets The asked. “Certainly, “the girl said. I went back to the ticket-office at once. “Could I have those two tickets please?” asked. “Certenly,” the girl said, “but they are for next Wednesday’s performance. Do you still want them.

“I might as well have them, “ I said sadly.

 

  1. B.     CAPITALIZATION

The are two kinds of letters in the English alphabet. Capital are usually larger and sometimes have a different shape than small letters.

There are several important rules for using capital letters. You must capitalize :

 

Important Rules

 

Example

1. The first word of sentence

1. A good diet is important for good health

2. The pronoun

2. I am always tired when I get home from classes

3.Names of people

3. Carlos Perez , Susan Martin

4.Tittle that appear with names

4. Doctor – Dr. , Mister – Mr.

5.Names of cities

5. New York, Cairo, Tokyo

6.Names of states and countries

6. Peru, Portugal, Indonesia

7.Names of continents, oceans, lakes,   rivers, deserts, mountains, and important geographic divisions.

7. Lake Luzerne, the Far East, the Pacific Ocean

8. Names of institution and organization

8. the United Nations, the English Language Institute

9. Names of specific buildings

9. the White House, Baxter Library

10. Names of Street

10. Forbes Avenue, Sixth Street

11. Brand names

11. Westinghouse, Kodak

12. Names of languages and nationalities

12. Japanese, Spanish, Arabic

13. Days of the week and their abbreviations

13. Monday, Sunday, etc

14. Months of the year and their abbreviation

14. January, February, etc

15. Holidays

15. Ramadan, Chirstmas,

16. Tittle of books/ songs

16. Winds of War, Take It Easy

 

Exercise 1

For each of the followig sentences, cross out letters that should be capitalize, and write the capital letter in the space above.

  1. my boss said, “we need a longer lunch break. a half hour is not enough time.”
  2. i wrote a letter about health care to senator Robb, and i sent a copy to vi rus, my doctor.
  3. kate wants to take a class with professor ted jones who has great teaching skills.
  4. in her book, jan wrote, “meeting friends is hard for some people”.
  5. dr. seuss’s book, the cat in the hat, is a big hit with children.
  6. susan said, “we get more conservative as we age”
  7. markbeauchamp, our mayor, has done great things for his town.
  8. the song “ let’s give them something to talk about” reminds me of you.
  9. some people want president bush to fight terrorism more aggressively.
  10. ellen’s music box plays “ring around the rosie”.

 

Key answers:

  1. My boss said, “We need a longer lunch break. A half hour is not enough time.”
  2. I wrote a letter about health care to Senator Robb, and I sent a copy to ViRus, my doctor.
  3. Kate wants to take a class with Professor Ted Jones who has great teaching skills.
  4. In her book, Jan wrote, “Meeting Friends is Hard for Some People”.
  5. dr. Seuss’s book, The Cat in the Hat, is a big hit with children.
  6. Susan said, “We get more conservative as we age”.
  7. Mark Beauchamp, our mayor, has done great things for his town.
  8. The song “ Let’sGive Them Something to Talk About” reminds me of you.
  9. Some people want President Bush to fight terrorism more aggressively.
  10. Ellen’s music box plays “Ring Around the Rosie”.

 

Exercise 2

Cross out letters that should be capitalized, and write the capital letter in the spaces above.

  1. onmonday, hope church will open a new soup kitchen at park street and king street.
  2. blair high school held classes on veteran’s day, but the students were off for labor day.
  3. christian read the bible, and jews read the talmud.
  4. my mom came all the way from france to see me.
  5. the purple heart and the bronze star are meaningful awards.
  6. the renaissance was a time of great art and music.
  7. aunt sue and uncle peter are from the south, but they enjoyed traveling to vermont and new york.
  8. dad studied russian and spanish when he worked for the fbi.
  9. many lakes, such as champlain and squam lake, attract tourists in the summer.
  10. did you know that grandma liked nike’scommersials that aired during the super bowl.

Key answers:

  1. On Monday, Hope Church will open a new soup kitchen at park street and king street.
  2. Blair High School held classes on Veteran’s Day, but the students were off for Labor Day.
  3. Christian read the Bible, and Jews read the Talmud.
  4. My mom came all the way from France to see me.
  5. The Purple Heart and the Bronze Star are meaningful awards.
  6. The Renaissance was a time of great art and music.
  7. Aunt Sue and unclePeter are from the South, but they enjoyed traveling to Vermont and New York.
  8. Dad studied Russian and Spanish when he worked for the FBI.
  9. Many lakes, such as Champlain and Squamlake, attract tourists in the summer.
  10. Did you know that grandma liked Nike’s commersials that aired during the Super Bowl?

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. THE COMMA

 

Use a comma after each iten in a series including the item before the word and. However,when there are only two item joined by and, do not use a comma.

e.g : We had chicken and rice for dinner.

Exercise

1.  The waiter ignored the rude obnoxious customer.

2.  Joey ate all of his peas but he refused to eat his lima beans.

3.  Edgar Allan Poe the father of the short story is buried in Baltimore.

4.  Since the expansion of the Internet research has become much less tedious.

5.  To maintain excellent grades in your classes is an accomplishment.

6.  Handguns knives and other weapons are turning up in locker checks.

7.  The golfer wearing the plaid pants desperately needs to improve his game.

8.  As cucumbers grow their vines need room to expand.

9.  That movie in my opinion was too scary for children.

10.  You will come to my dance recital won’t you?

 

Key Answer

1.  The waiter ignored the rude, obnoxious customer. 

2.  Joey ate all of his peas, but he refused to eat his lima beans.

3.  Edgar Allan Poe, the father of the short story, is buried in Baltimore.

    

4. Since the expansion of the Internet, research has become much less tedious.     

5.  Correct.  To maintain excellent grades in your classes is an accomplishment.   

6.  Handguns,knives, and other weapons are turning up in locker checks.      

7.  Correct.  The golfer wearing the plaid pants desperately needs to improve his game.   

8.  As cucumbers grow,their vines need room to expand.    

9.  That movie,in my opinion, was too scary for children.      

10.  You will come to my dance recital, won’t you?

 

  1. CAPITALIZATION 2

More Capitalization Rules

Capitalize :

 

 

  1. 1.      The names of religions and important religious terms.

e.gà The Koran in the holy book of the Islamic region

  1. 2.      The names of important historical events and periods of time.

e.gà Word War II ended in 1945

  1. 3.      The names of specific college courses.

e.gà Won-Jo wants to take a Math course and a chemistry course next term.

  1. 4.      Terms associated with geographic names or personal names.

e.gà Have you ever seen a Shakespearean play?

  1. 5.      The words in the tittle of books, movies, magazines, etc( like on at in)(but, or)(a, an, the).

e.gàDavid Copperfield is the title of novel by Charles Dicken.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. THE APOSTROPHE

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Rule 1

Use the apostrophe with contractions. The apostrophe is always placed at the spot where the letter(s) has been removed.

Examples:
don’t, isn’t
You’re right.
She’s a great teacher.

Rule 2

Use the apostrophe to show possession. Place the apostrophe before the s to show singular possession.

Examples:
one boy’s hat
one woman’s hat
one actress’s hat
one child’s hat
Ms. Chang’s house

NOTE: Although names ending in s or an s sound are not required to have the second s added in possessive form, it is preferred.

Examples:
Mr. Jones’s golf clubs
Texas’s weather
Ms. Straus’s daughter
Jose Sanchez’s artwork
Dr. Hastings’s appointment (name is Hastings)
Mrs. Lees’s books (name is Lees)

Rule 3

Use the apostrophe where the noun that should follow is implied.

Example:
This was his father’s, not his, jacket.

 

 

Rule 4

To show plural possession, make the noun plural first. Then immediately use the apostrophe.

Examples:
two boys’ hats two women’s hats
two actresses’ hats
two children’s hats
the Changs’ house
the Joneses’ golf clubs
the Strauses’ daughter
the Sanchezes’ artwork
the Hastingses’ appointment
the Leeses’ books

Rule 5

Do not use an apostrophe for the plural of a name.

Examples:
We visited the Sanchezes in Los Angeles.
The Changs have two cats and a dog.

Rule 6

With a singular compound noun, show possession with ‘sat the end of the word.

Example:
my mother-in-law’s hat

Rule 7

If the compound noun is plural, form the plural first and then use the apostrophe.

Example:
my two brothers-in-law’s hats

Rule 8

Use the apostrophe and s after the second name only if two people possess the same item.

Examples:
Cesar and Maribel’s home is constructed of redwood.
Cesar’s and Maribel’s job contracts will be renewed next year.
Indicates separate ownership.
Cesar and Maribel’s job contracts will be renewed next year.
Indicates joint ownership of more than one contract.

Rule 9

Never use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns: his, hers, its, theirs, ours, yours, whose. They already show possession so they do not require an apostrophe.

Correct:
This book is hers, not yours.

Incorrect:
Sincerely your’s.

Rule 10

The only time an apostrophe is used for it’s is when it is a contraction for it is or it has.

Examples:
It’s a nice day.
It’s your right to refuse the invitation.
It’s been great getting to know you.

Rule 11

The plurals for capital letters and numbers used as nouns are not formed with apostrophes.

Examples:
She consulted with three M.D.s.
BUT
She went to three M.D.s’ offices.
The apostrophe is needed here to show plural possessive.
She learned her ABCs.
the 1990s not the 1990’s
the ’90s or the mid-’70s not the ’90’s or the mid-’70’s
She learned her times tables for 6s and 7s.

Exception:
Use apostrophes with capital letters and numbers when the meaning would be unclear otherwise.

Examples:
Please dot your i’s.
You don’t mean is.
Ted couldn’t distinguish between his 6’s and 0’s.
You need to use the apostrophe to indicate the plural of zero or it will look like the word Os. To be consistent within a sentence, you would also use the apostrophe to indicate the plural of 6’s.

Rule 12

Use the possessive case in front of a gerund (-ing word).

Examples:
Alex’s skating was a joy to behold.
This does not stop Joan’s inspecting of our facilities next Thursday.

Rule 13

If the gerund has a pronoun in front of it, use the possessive form of that pronoun.

Examples:
I appreciate your inviting me to dinner.I appreciated his working with me to resolve the conflict.

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE

1.  The girlfriend of her brother drives a trailer truck.

Her……………………girlfriend drives a trailer truck.

   

2.  We heard the voices of the children clearly in the lounge.

We heard the …………………….voices clearly in the lounge.

  

3.  The husbands of the sisters have lunch together every Monday.

The……………………husbands have lunch together every Monday.

  

4.  The report, supported by the accounts of two witnesses, proves he did not commit the crime.

The report, supported by two………………………..accounts, proves he did not commit the crime.

  

5.  The flavor of the bread was improved when he put butter on it.

The……………….flavor was improved when he put butter on it.

   

6.  The guess of anybody is as good as mine.

…………………………..guess is as good as mine.

  

7.  I spent all my Thanksgivings at the house belonging to my grandmother.

I spent all my Thanksgivings at my…………………………house.

  

8.  The votes of four members changed the outcome of the election.

Four…………………votes changed the outcome of the election.

  

9.  The wipers on your car need to be replaced.

Your……………………………..wipers need to be replaced.

 

10.The cat played with the toy belonging to it.

The cat played with…………………………………toy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANSWER

1.  The correct answer is brother’s.  Her brother’s girlfriend drives a trailer truck.  Refer to the apostrophe rule about singular possessive nouns for help.

2.  The correct answer is children’s.  We heard the children’s voices clearly in the lounge.  Refer to the apostrophe rule for irregular plural possessive nouns for help.

 3. The correct answer is sisters’.  The sisters’ husbands have lunch together every Monday Refer to the apostrophe rule for plural possessive nouns for help.

4.  The correct answer is witnesses’. The report, supported by two witnesses’ accounts, proves he did not commit the crime.   Refer to the apostrophe rule for plural possessive nouns for help.

5.  The correct answer is bread’s.  The bread’s flavor was improved when he put butter on it.  Refer to the apostrophe rule about singular possessive nouns for help.

6.  The correct answer is anybody’sAnybody’s guess is as good as mine.  Refer to the apostrophe rule for indefinite possessive pronouns for help.

7.  The correct answer is grandmother’s.  I spent all my Thanksgivings at my grandmother’s house.  Refer to the apostrophe rule about singular possessive nouns for help.

8.  The correct answer is members’.  Four members’ votes changed the outcome of the election.  Refer to the apostrophe rule for plural possessive nouns for help.

9.  The correct answer is car’s.  Your car’s wipers need to be replaced.  Refer to the apostrophe rule about singular possessive nouns for help.

10.The correct answer is its.  The cat played with its toy.  Refer to the apostrophe rule for the pronoun itfor help.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE :

Jane,Straus.May 18,1954-February 25,2011.Author,The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation

Margaret L. Benner.Director, Writing Support Program.English Department.Towson University. benner@towson.edu 

Hogan, Katherine S. 2004. Barron’s GED Writing Workbook. New York : Library of Congress.

http://www.towson.edu/ows/exercisecomma2.htm.

Alexander, G.L. New Concept English: Practice and Progress.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s